Friday, 24 August 2018
Pectin is a polysaccharide which contains pectin acids. It is a long chain molecule basically made up of sugars and acids, which is effective in binding with cholesterol and blocking its absorption activity. It is also a starch, and which acts as a thickening agent in cooking. Studies have shown that Pectin activity has significantly reduced LDL cholesterol as well as the absorption of cholesterol in the liver and bile acid metabolism. It has also shown functions like binding to bile acids, reducing hepatic cholesterol concentrations. The skin of the pear fruit contains the highest concentrations of pectin.
Opuntia belongs to a genus in the cactus family known as the Cactaceae. The young stem segments, called nopales, which are edible and the fruit of opuntias, called tuna, is edible, although it has the small spines like projection on the outer skin. Nopal cactus, which is also commonly known as prickly pear, is a member of the genus Opuntia and is native to arid regions of the Western Hemisphere. The nopal cactus grows spiny leaves which are flat, called cladodes, which are a staple in traditional diets in parts of the Mexico and Southwest United States. These nopales are often eaten raw, mashed into a sauce or boiled into syrup and offers some potential health benefits.
The protective and health benefits of nopal cactus on the liver were demonstrated in a study, Obese laboratory rats that were given a diet containing 4 percent nopal for few weeks experienced about a 50 percent reduction in their triglyceride levels in their livers in comparison to a control group that didn't receive nopal. The Liver enlargement is due to fatty decreased on the nopal diet, as also the levels of liver enzymes which, when elevated, indicate stress on the liver. The nopal-fed rats showed lower levels of oxidized lipids, resulted due to the accumulated toxins and waste products on lipids.
Prickly pear is popularly known as an edible cactus, which is commonly consumed as fruit and juices. This fruit is very beneficial for liver diseases, wounds, and ulcers.
The Cactus leaf also known as Optunia contains several antioxidants that can help protect healthy cells from damage by free radicals. In a study, researchers evaluated the effect of cactus leaf on cells extracted from colon, breast, prostate, and liver cancers. The phytochemicals extracted from the leaf were found to inhibit the growth of cancer cells, meaning the healthy cells, normal was unharmed. Researchers would have to try and in vivo study to see what effect cactus leaf provides to real human participants.
Friday, 17 August 2018
Eating white button mushrooms can make little shifts within the microbial community of the gut, which may improve the regulation of glucose within the liver. In the consideration, the analysts appeared that feeding white button mushrooms to mice changed the composition of gut microbes — microbiota — to deliver more brief chain fatty acids, particularly, propionate from succinate. The succinate and propionate present in the liver can alter the expression of genes required to oversee glucose production.
Managing glucose way better has implications for diabetes, as well as other metabolic diseases. Normally glucose is provided from the food individuals eat. Insulin moves glucose out of the blood and into the cells. Diabetes happens when either there's not sufficient insulin or the insulin that is made isn't compelling, resulting in high blood glucose levels. Diabetes and pre-diabetes contribute to extreme life-threatening illnesses including heart disease and stroke. The analysts utilized two sorts of mice in the study: One bunch of mice had microbiota, the other bunch did not have microbiota and were germ-free mice.
Mice with the microbiota may well be compared with the germ-free mice. There were huge differences within the kinds of metabolites we found within the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in the liver and serum, of the animals nourished mushrooms that had microbiota than the ones that didn’t. The researchers encouraged the mice about every day serving measure of the mushrooms. For people, a daily serving the measure would be approximately 3 ounces. It turns out; expending the mushrooms can set off a chain reaction among the gut microbes, extending the populace of Prevotella, bacteria that produce propionate and succinate. These acids can alter the expression of genes that are keys to the pathway between the brain and the intestine that makes a difference manage the generation of glucose.
According to the researchers, the mushrooms, in this case, serve as a prebiotic, which may be a substance that feeds useful microbes that already exist within the intestine. Probiotics are beneficial microbes that are introduced into the digestive system.
Useful benefits of mushrooms as a prebiotic.
The Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, has long been utilized for therapeutic purposes. Reishi mushrooms help in controlling blood glucose levels, modulation of the immune system, offer liver protection, and offer assistance to the body maintains optimal levels of microbes. In traditional Chinese medication, Reishi mushrooms are believed to replenish Qi, treat a sleeping disorder and relieve a cough and asthma among other things. Reishi mushrooms contain carbohydrates, fat, fibers, and protein along with a few vitamins and minerals, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, selenium, iron, zinc, magnesium, and copper. The Reishi mushroom contains several bioactive molecules namely the nucleotides and their derivatives, phenols, terpenoids, steroids, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides.
About 8% of the mushroom contains the Polysaccharides, which comprises of several health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, antiulcer, hypoglycemic, and immune stimulating effects. Terpenes have also been shown to have anti-tumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering properties. Other molecules and compounds found in Reishi mushrooms have been shown to be anti-tumorigenic, lipid-lowering, antiviral, and antioxidant effects.
Friday, 10 August 2018
An important function of the liver is to produce bile which is a liquid which passes into the gut through small tubes called bile ducts and is stored in the gallbladder. The Bile produced by the liver plays an essential role in carrying the waste products from the liver and absorption of fats and vitamins by the intestines.
Biliary atresia could be a rare gastrointestinal disorder characterized by destruction or absence of all or a portion of the bile duct that lays exterior the liver also known as the extrahepatic bile duct. The bile duct may be a tube that permits the section of the bile from the liver into the gallbladder and, into the small intestine. In biliary atresia, absence or destruction of the bile ducts results within the unusual collection of bile in the liver. Affected infants show a sign like yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) and scarring of the liver (fibrosis). In rare conditions, additional anomalies may be present like which incorporates heart function deformity and intestinal, kidney and spleen malformations.
Biliary atresia is a medical condition that occurs either, before birth due to abnormally development in the bile ducts or which shortly after birth due to the bile ducts becoming inflamed or obstructed.
In most babies with biliary atresia, the bile ducts on the inside and outside of the liver are influenced in the long run leading to a whole blockage of the bile flow from the liver, which in turn, causes a scarring within the liver tissues. This condition is known as Liver Fibrosis.
CAUSES: The main cause of the biliary atresia disorder is obscure. Research is being carried out but there's the no clear reason, there's no proven evidence to suggest that biliary atresia is hereditary (can be passed on to children by their parents) or due to anything parents might have done or taken. Individuals with biliary atresia will not pass the condition on to their possess children.
In the first weeks of the babies life, with biliary atresia often seem a well apart from being showing yellow discoloration of the skin and in the whites of the eyes which mostly indicates jaundiced. Prolonged jaundice – jaundice which is lasting more than two weeks in a full term baby or three weeks in a pre-term baby, should be diagnosed properly and it can show a key sign of biliary atresia.
Other important signs are: Pale poo – normally the stools of a baby are green or yellow. If the stools of a baby are grey, white, fawn or pale then this can be an indication of liver disease. Urine color of the newborn baby which is normally is colorless. If a baby’s urine is persistent shows yellow or dark in color this can be an indication of liver disease.
The Biliary atresia is the most common cause of end-stage liver disease and liver transplantation in children.
A Hepato-portoenterostomy which is additionally known as the Kasai portoenterostomy is a surgical treatment performed on newborn children with a Type of cyst and biliary atresia to permit for bile drainage. In these newborn children, the bile is not able to deplete regularly from the small bile ducts inside the liver into the larger bile ducts that interface to the gallbladder and small digestive system. This surgery involves exposing the porta hepatis which is the zone of the liver from where the bile ought to deplete by a radical excision of all bile duct tissue up to the liver capsule and connecting a Roux-en-Y circle of jejunum to the exposed liver capsule above the bifurcation of the entry vein making a portoenterostomy. The basis for this approach is that a minute, bile duct remnants may be displayed presently inside the fibrous tissue of the porta hepatis and subsequently give direct connection with the intrahepatic ductule system to permit bile drainage.
Friday, 3 August 2018
The Hepato-pulmonary syndrome can cause low oxygen levels in your blood, is an important cause of dyspnea and hypoxia in the setting of liver disease, occurring in patients with liver cirrhosis. This causes due to vasodilation and angiogenesis in the pulmonary vascular bed, which leads to ventilation-perfusion mismatching, diffusion limitation to oxygen exchange, and arterio-venous shunting. The vasodilation is mediated by a number of endogenous vasoactive molecules, including endothelin-1 and nitric oxide (NO). The liver injury stimulates the release of endothelin-1 and results in increased expression of ETB receptors on pulmonary endothelial cells, leading to up-regulation of endothelial NO synthase and subsequent increased production of NO, which causes vasodilation. In addition, increased phagocytosis of bacterial endotoxin in the lung not only promotes stimulation of inducible NO synthase, which increases NO production but also contributes to the intrapulmonary accumulation of monocytes, which may stimulate angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. Despite these insights into the pathogenesis of experimental HPS, there is no established medical therapy, and liver transplantation remains the main treatment for symptomatic HPS, although selected patients may benefit from other surgical or radiological interventions.
The people having low oxygen levels in the blood implies with HPS encounter shortness of breath, which can become more severe over time. When the oxygen is not transporting in the body appropriately, it can cause the fingertips to turn blue or the shape of fingernails changes over time which, is called clubbing. Individuals experience more breathlessness within the sitting or standing position and feel way better when lying flat which is called platypnea.
The prognosis in the Hepato-pulmonary disorder is primarily determined by whether or not a liver transplant is required. The majority of patients with Hepato-pulmonary disorder show symptoms like gradual worsening in shortness of breath and low levels of oxygen over time, a liver transplant takes place. As time advances, many patients may require an oxygen therapy. When compared to patients who have a comparable degree of liver disease but don't have the Hepato-pulmonary disorder, patients with the Hepato-pulmonary disorder tend to have more complications of their liver disease and have a better chance of dying from these complications. However, a few patients who stabilize the condition and can survive for numerous a long time with chronically low oxygen levels due to Hepato-pulmonary disorder.
· Pulse oximetry
· Contrast echocardiography and sometimes other imaging
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